All about varicose veins: risk factors, symptoms, treatment, prevention

Diseases of the veins of the lower extremities are fatal. The treatment of varicose veins cannot be left until after. Modern medicine deals with the development of the disease.

What are varicose veins

Blood stasis can form in the lower parts of the body. This is due to the movement of blood flows throughout the body. In the arteries, they move from top to bottom. In venous vessels - from the bottom up, which is much more difficult due to physical laws. In order for the flow to increase efficiently from below, by nature, a person was given a capillary valve. It works by moving the leg muscles. They are shrinking. This forces the blood flow upwards.

varicose veins on the legs

Varicose veins are a disease that results in a change in the vascular structure, its elongation and the appearance of nodules. As a result, the valve mechanism does not work well and is unable to close completely. A large flow of blood flows into the damaged vessel, without fully "pushing" its excessive build-up and inflammation of the site occurs. Blood stagnation is formed.

Due to human anatomy, the vessels of the legs, in the region of the pelvic organs, receive the main charge. The esophageal veins can be affected.

Varicose veins are a disease that has been known for a long time. Through history, doctors have learned that the description of symptoms, the first attempts to treat the disease, go back to the times of Hippocrates. Women and men suffer from the disease. The weaker sex faces the first symptoms of the disease more often than the strong sex. Acute forms end up in the hospital, disability.

Couperose is a type of varicose veins of the face. Blood blocks the veins in the neck. Intradermal manifestations are not dangerous, but they signal the appearance of problems in the vessels. There is a disease in the eyes, larynx, neck, fingers, shoulder. Eye manifestation threatens vision problems. The expansion of blood vessels in the oral cavity, the widening of the veins in the neck, the arms, leads to aesthetic and physical problems.

Symptoms of varicose veins

The first signs of the disease may go unnoticed. The legs may swell in the leg region, there is a light weight, especially at the end of the day. The contours of the veins are hidden from the eyes or are not visually enlarged. This is the insidiousness of varicose veins. Treatment is recommended to start early, but most people do not care about edema and severity.

Patients seek help at a time when visual symptoms in the form of swollen dark veins begin to appear in the body. At a later stage, other manifestations of varicose veins are added:

  • The legs get tired quickly. The height of fatigue occurs at dusk.
  • The swelling is getting worse. It may be accompanied by pain syndrome.
  • Periodic cramps appear in the muscles of the lower extremities.
  • A person realizes that the so-called cyanotic asterisks have appeared on the legs - the areas of the veins become noticeably darker, located in certain areas of the skin. The veins become swollen, they swell, they inflate.
  • Areas of the skin are irritated, prone to ulcers, eczema.
manifestations of varicose veins in the legs

The International Classifier of Diseases identifies 6 stages. Phlebologists, after collecting information of a clinical nature, do the necessary research, diagnose the patient with varicose veins. Be sure to indicate the stage of development of the disease according to the classification:

  1. The so-called zero stage. Only the primary symptoms appear in the form of weight on the legs, minimal swelling.
  2. The first spider veins begin to appear.
  3. The veins expand, begin to protrude on the skin's surface.
  4. Swelling of the legs increases, the pain syndrome joins.
  5. The skin on the legs changes color. It turns brown.
  6. The stage at which varicose veins are considered to be neglected. It is characterized by the appearance of ulcerative manifestations, a burning sensation, the veins are heavily swollen.
  7. Trophic ulcers are formed. There is a risk of bleeding due to rupture.

To confirm the diagnosis, phlebologists are prescribed to do special tests using a tourniquet.

People who lead the wrong lifestyle begin to experience the first signs of varicose veins in the early years. With age, without treatment, disease progression cannot be prevented.

Risk factors for the development of varicose veins

Varicose veins in the legs are a disease whose predisposition is hereditary. If a person has a family history of varicose veins, there is a risk of weakening the walls of the venous vessels. There are other factors that affect the onset, development of the disease, including those with no genetic predisposition:

  • Sedentary lifestyle. Without movement, it is more difficult for the muscles to "push" the blood upwards.
  • Varicose veins in men are detected less frequently than in women. They are more likely to suffer from inflammation of the groin vein.
  • The work a person sits on constantly remains immobile.
  • Intense physical activity with lifting heavy weights.
  • Inconvenient shoes. Wearing heels.
  • With age, the risk of developing varicose veins increases.
  • Frequent pregnancies.
  • Smoking, alcohol abuse.
  • Restricting movement, uncomfortable clothes, too big.
  • Frequent washing in hot bath, steam bath.
  • Great body weight.
  • Poor and unhealthy food.
  • Frequent constipation.
a sedentary lifestyle as a cause of the development of varicose veins

There are many factors that make the disease progress. Without health control, a person is at risk of serious problems in the veins.

Age and work

A child, a teenager, who faces varicose veins, needs urgent treatment. The reasons for the development of the disease at this age are as follows:

  • congenital disease;
  • infection;
  • pathology of the foot structure;

The characteristic symptoms of the disease in childhood have their own characteristics and differ from the symptoms of the disease in adults. The disease begins to manifest itself with a superficial change in the skin of the arms, legs, nets, thickening appears. It can be acute or long-lasting. As the baby grows, the lower extremities are transformed. The risk of developing thrombophlebitis is possible. Then, the skin on the hands is affected by the disease.

The disease does not go away on its own. The prognosis is favorable, without complications, only with treatment. It is impossible to prevent the formation of active pathogenesis with folk remedies. The consequence will be the transition from the disease to the chronic form.

In adults, the vessels become less elastic. Blood flows accumulate in places that are difficult to pass, dilating blood vessels. The valve stops working properly and the inflammatory process begins.

The work associated with sitting for a long time or standing in a constant static place is an unfavorable factor. As a result of the lack of constant movement of the blood, it is more difficult to rise. The vascular valve starts to wear out. A person receives the first signs of development of varicose veins.


In the first manifestations of varicose veins, the doctor prescribes an adaptation to the patient's lifestyle. Lifetime recommendations. This will slow down the development of varicose veins:

  • It is necessary to give up tight, pressing the veins on the legs of the clothes. It should not interfere with the normal movement of blood in the body.
  • It is forbidden to sit with your legs crossed, bend them under you, tighten your knee area. This causes the appearance of blood congestion.
  • Minimize skin exposure to high temperatures. Hot bath, sauna, bath prohibited. A contrast shower is recommended.
  • Prolonged exposure to the sun is not allowed.
  • Minimize weight lifting. If it is impossible to do this, the use of compression panties for the legs is shown.
  • Various types of hair removal on the body, where heating occurs, are prohibited. This includes electrolysis and hot waxing.
  • Drink a minimal amount of liquid. On average 2 liters. The standards depend on weight, lifestyle. Tea, coffee, juices are not liquids that replenish the body's water reserves. They are not taken into account.
  • Diet and nutrition. Eating fiber is essential to prevent constipation. The diet should include foods that contain ascorbic acid, vitamin E and vitamins P.
  • To help the blood flow from the lower extremities during the day. It is enough to lift your legs above your head for 30 minutes. For convenience, use a sofa. Sleep is recommended with a roll under your feet. This improves blood flow.
  • Monitor your weight. Extra pounds put pressure on the lower limbs and blood vessels. This stimulates the development of congestion, inflammation in the veins.
  • Have a special massage.
foot massage for varicose veins

Varicose veins are a long-lasting disease. The development of varicose veins is stopped by observing the basic rules of lifestyle with an illness.

Hormone therapy

Only a gynecologist can prescribe a hormonal treatment, select contraceptives for the weaker sex. If varicose veins are suspected in a female patient, she is referred for consultation with a phlebologist and the necessary tests. This is due to the fact that some hormones cause vasodilation and increase blood pressure. Estrogen is a popular ingredient in female pills. Its excess in the body leads to strong blood clotting. The passage through the veins is difficult. Blood clots and inflammatory processes appear.

Without the supervision of doctors, consultation with hormone therapy is dangerous for women.

How to treat varicose veins

Before prescribing treatment, the doctor makes diagnoses and identifies the stage of the disease. The methods of treating varicose veins can be combined with each other:

  • Ointments, creams, lifestyle adjustments, introduction of gentle physical activity. Treatment will be effective in the early stages of the disease.
  • Traditional methods of treating varicose veins at home are presented in the first manifestations of the disease. In addition, they can be used in combination with the main method of fighting the disease, which is chosen by the doctor.
  • Sclerotherapy. The method is based on removing the affected vein without surgery. This is achieved with the introduction of a special medication that glues the walls of the vessel. Blood flow to that area is interrupted and distributed to healthy veins. The effect of the procedure is long-term, sometimes for life. It is difficult to achieve complete healing in advanced stages.
  • Coagulation. The treatment method allows to remove the affected vein with a laser. This procedure is equivalent in degree of effectiveness to the surgical excision of the vessel. Not used in advanced cases.
  • In the later stages of the disease, when ulcers, eczema appear, a surgical method of treatment is used. Excision of the affected vessel occurs with a small incision. The operation leaves no scars, scars. Relapses may occur.
phlebologist treats varicose veins in the legs

Doctors recommend not to delay the treatment of the veins in the legs. In the early stages, simple methods can be dispensed with. This will keep you healthy.

Physical exercise

Varicose veins in the legs do not exclude physical activity. Doctors recommend practicing allowed sports and exercises to:

  • improving blood flow in the extremities;
  • strengthening of blood vessels;
  • strengthening general health.

There are basic rules for dealing with a dispute allowed for varicose veins. Their compliance is mandatory:

  • Don't forget to drink water during classes. The body loses a lot of fluid. Hence the thickening of the blood.
  • The upper torso muscles can be trained without significant restrictions. The exception is to lift weights while standing.
  • Do the exercises preferably sitting or lying down.
  • If possible, wear compression stockings for training.

Sports are divided into allowed, restricted admissible and prohibited. Those that are indicated for illnesses include:

  • Swimming. Safe type of physical activity. Breathing during exercise improves blood circulation, minimizing stress on the joints.
  • Walking. A brisk 30-minute walk improves blood flow, relieves stagnant outbreaks in the lower extremities. It is not allowed to walk on the roads, with shoes unsuitable for this.
  • Cycling. The legs are in constant motion.
cycling as a permitted sport for varicose veins

Another physical activity is offered with small restrictions. Sports that doctors consider allowed after the examination for patients with varicose veins:

  • Run. The use of special running shoes is mandatory. Specialized control over the technique is required.
  • Gym. The doctor, the trainer, will select a set of exercises that are not prohibited.

Sports are prohibited, in which there are contraindicated elements for those suffering from varicose veins in the legs. Doctors impose a lifetime ban on them:

  • squats;
  • working with heavy weights;
  • jumping, sports in which the feet constantly strike the ground surface, hall, stadium.

Varicose veins are a contraindication for professional sport. Doctors do not allow you to play exhausting sports, even those that are allowed.

Compression underwear

The use of medical underwear is indicated in the postoperative period to avoid internal damage to blood vessels, to reduce the risk of developing the disease. It is constantly used in the later stages of the disease. The doctor indicates the degree of compression desired, type of clothing:

  • Knee socks. Protects the veins in the ankle area, below the knee.
  • Socks. Help those who suffer from varicose veins in the region up to the middle of the thigh.
  • Socks. Indicated for pregnant women, those who suffer from injuries in the upper sections of the femur.

It is necessary to choose a medical device strictly in size. The compression class starts at 1, goes up to 4. The last - for the more advanced stages of the disease. Compression class 0 was created to prevent the appearance of varicose veins. Models are available for both sexes: male and female.


Treatment in the early stages of disease manifestation is carried out with special medications - venotonic. They prevent blood thickening, strengthen the walls of blood vessels. They have a long-lasting effect on the vascular system. The medicine is taken in courses prescribed by a doctor.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed by doctors. The acetylsalicylic acid base helps to dilute blood flow, eliminating stagnant foci.

Ointments, heparin-based gels are effective in the early stages. They will relieve weight, swelling, fatigue of the lower extremities.


Surgeons and phlebologists advise not to bring varicose veins to a state where drug treatment does not help, an operation is necessary. If the disease progresses to the stage where the deep venous damage started, surgical removal of the vessel is prescribed.

The operation is performed under local anesthesia in a short time. After that, there are no scars, scars. You will need to wear compression stockings for at least 4 weeks.

surgery for varicose veins in the legs

Operations not related to varicose veins are dangerous if you do not use compressive linen in the postoperative period. Varicose veins after surgery may appear in this case again.


Office workers, women and pregnant women are at risk of contracting the disease. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to follow the basic rules of healthy living:

  • get rid of alcohol, cigarettes;
  • walk a lot with comfortable shoes;
  • reduce the number of workouts with large weights;
  • drink lots of clean water;
  • eat a variety of foods;
  • perform preventive care for tired legs;
  • correct vitamin deficiency.

At the first signs of heaviness in the legs, swelling, it is recommended to consult a phlebologist. He will conduct the necessary research. He will tell you how to deal with a patient with varicose veins. If the person is healthy, the doctor will give a list of recommendations on how to prevent the appearance of varicose veins.